The National Pressure Advisory Panel updated its definition of the four “stages” used to diagnose pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers (often referred to as bed sores). It also added two new stages on deep-tissue injury and ulcers that cannot be staged. The updated stages of pressure ulcers were released at the conclusion of its 2007 annual conference held in San Antonio, Texas.
A pressure ulcer or bed sore is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. In elderly or disabled patients, sores can begin on the skin of the tailbone, back, buttocks, heels, back of the head, or elbows. Poor nutrition or dehydration can weaken the skin and make it more vulnerable.
The new staging definitions are as follows:
Stage I. Intact skin with non-blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence. Darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching; its color may differ from the surrounding area.
Stage II. Partial thickness loss of dermis presenting as a shallow open ulcer with a red pink wound bed, without slough. May also present as an intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister.
Stage III. Full thickness tissue loss. Subcutaneous fat may be visible but bone, tendon or muscle is not exposed. Slough may be present but does not obscure the depth of tissue loss. May include undermining and tunneling.
Stage IV. Full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle. Slough or eschar may be present on some parts of the wound bed. Often include undermining and tunneling.
Unstageable. Full thickness tissue loss in which the base of the ulcer is covered by slough (yellow, tan, gray, green or brown) and/or eschar (tan, brown or black) in the wound bed.
There is rarely a legitimate explanation for a pressure ulcer to reach the level of a Stage IV in hospital, nursing home, or assisted living setting. Any skin wound progressing to Stages III or IV should be viewed with a critical eye, and a physician should be involved in the care immediately. The development of pressure ulcers in the custodial care setting is one of the leading causes of lawsuits against nursing homes in the United States, and have been the subject of several lawsuits brought by the attorneys at Walton Law Firm.